How Parents Affect Teenage Personality Development
You hear your voice when your teenager laughs, but wonder where he acquired his love for math. Sociologists, biologists and anthropologists debate how much of a child's personality is learned and the role genetics play, but fortunately, the only issue parents need to deal with is creating a loving environment to help teens develop well-adjusted personalities. Many developmental psychologists agree that parents provide the key to healthy personality development.
Your teen's personality shapes the way he thinks and how he handles emotions, according to Dennis O'Neil, professor of anthropology at Palomar College, and personality also influences your child's temperament. What your teenager learns to expect from life, his values and beliefs and how he reacts to successes and disappointments all define his personality. It's impossible to estimate the degree of each influence, but parenting, society and peers shape your child's personality 6. Spending time with your teen helps you exert more influence on your child's development.
Anthropologists, including Margaret Mead, debate the influence of society and culture on personality development, but most ethnographic scholars agree that society influences the way parents raise children 6. Child-rearing practices shape personality development 136. The individual family structure and the community where the teen lives also influence personality development. Some parents guide children to uphold traditions. Parents also encourage teens to use self-monitoring personality behaviors to control actions. Teens learn how to use the conscious self as a part of personality in some homes. Most parents use a combination of these three influences in raising teenagers.
Teens build self-esteem and develop confidence by watching parents deal with life challenges. Loving and supportive parents raise children with higher levels of both confidence and esteem. A long-term study reported in 1984 to the American Psychological Association and confirmed in 2012 by a review of more than 500 studies, found that teen self-esteem improves when the parent of the same gender has high confidence levels, but other studies reported by the APA show that the father's level of esteem as the most important factor for teens of both sexes in developing self confidence 17.
Personality development influences how your teen views life and handles life experiences 6. The APA suggests that personality traits developed in childhood, including perseverance, influence both healthy and unhealthy behavior as adults. Teens raised to develop a strong level of perseverance were less likely to be overweight and less inclined to drink alcohol as adults, according to a 2006 study done by the Oregon Research Institute.
- American Psychological Association: Parental Self Esteem and Personality Development in Children
- American Psychological Association: Childhood Personality Can Predict Adult Behavior
- Palomar College Behavioral Sciences Department: Personality Development
- Molecular Psychiatry: Visual Analysis of Geocoded Twin Data Puts Nature and Nurture on the Map
- University of California Museum of Paleontology: Understanding Evolution: Nature and Nurture
- Society for Personality and Social Psychology: A Father's Love is One of the Greatest Influences on Personality Development
- American Psychological Association: How Do Parents Matter? Let Us Count the Ways
- Polka Dot Images/Polka Dot/Getty Images